Among the hot climate fruits, the most produced type is apple.They shed their leaves in winter. Apples growing in the form of trees or woody are a perennial woody plant.It is usually grown for its fruit. Some forms are used as outdoor ornamental plants in parks and gardens.
The East Asian origin
North China, Manchuria, East Siberia and Japan are within this center. The most important species in this center are Malus baccata and Malus prunifolia. These two species hybridized with both Central Asian species and North American species, resulting in many cultivated apple varieties and cold-resistant rootstocks.
The Central Asian origin
The most important type of this center is Malus pumila. This species grows in an uncultural environment, especially in West Tianshan. It shows a broad form of wealth. At the same time, apples are domesticated in this area.
West Asian – European Origins
The borders of this gene center starts from Western Europe, extends eastward and includes Anatolia, the Caucasus and Iran. The most important wild apples of this place are Malus communis, Malus pumila and Malus sylvestris.
The North American origin
Important species of this gene center are Malus coronaria and Malus ioensis. The two species are used as materials in many breeding programs in North America.