Tomato is mostly an annual herbaceous plant. In appropriate ecologies, the plant can develop as a perennial.
Root: With the germination of tomato seeds, a pile root is formed first. The taproot develops rapidly and reaches 20 cm in length within 20 days. After the taproot reaches a certain height, fringe roots are formed on the roots and fine capillary hairs are formed on the fringe roots. Almost 70% of the roots in tomato reach 20-50 cm depth of the soil. Very few of them go deeper than 50 cm. However, since tomato is a drought-resistant plant, roots can reach 150 cm deep in arid conditions.
Body: Tomato has a herbaceous body. The body is initially round and about 4 cm in diameter. With the development of the plant, the stem section becomes angular and acquires a woody structure. The trunk is not strong enough to carry the plant alone. There are two reasons for this.
1. The root system is not strong enough to carry the heavy burden of the plant above the ground,
2. Weak root collar. The body consists of invisible knuckles and knuckles. There are two types of growth types related to the lengthening of the tomato stem.
1. Tomatoes with unlimited growth
In this type of tomatoes, after 4-5 nodes are formed, the main growth tip changes. After forming 2-3 leaves, it forms a flower shoot. The growth spike continues to develop and forms a new shoot consisting of leaves and inflorescences. Thus, growth continues unlimitedly. Plant height increases over 10 m in 1 year. By removing the shoots on the seats, the plant can be given a structure consisting of stem, leaves and flowers. Indeterminate tomato varieties are considered in this group
2. Tomatoes with limited growth
In tomato varieties with limited growth, the main growth end forms a flower bud after forming 2-4 leaves and the development ends with a flower bud. The number of flower stalks is limited. The plant develops in an upright or bush form. Plant height is between 40-60 cm. It grows to 2 m at most. Ground or dwarf varieties are included in this group.
The chin leaves are oval-shaped, with straight edges and green and purple in color. It is hairy. The growth tip on the main stem creates 7-11 leaves until the flowering period. However, this number varies according to the cultivars. Flower bud occurs after 2-3 leaves in early varieties and after 6-8 leaves in late varieties. The leaves are arranged on the stem in a receptive manner. In some cases, reciprocal ones are also found near the inflorescences. A leaf is a compound leaf. It consists of the combination of 2-3 or 8 leaflets. Leaflets have stalked and amorphous lobes Its edges are toothed. Leaves are covered with hair. Hairiness is higher on the lower face. Leaf length is between 10-50 cm.
Flowering and flower
With the transition of the plant to the generative stage in tomato, differentiation occurs at the end of growth, and at the end of the growth, flower bud drafts begin to form as well as leaf pulling. When the first flower bud completes its development, the second flower bud is formed just below the first flower. The first inflorescences 6-7. after knuckle or 2-3. It occurs after the knuckle. The second bloom is 1-3 after the 1st bloom. occurs in the joints. The first 2-3 in greenhouse cultivation. 1-2 after knuckle and the following sets. Varieties that occur once in the knuckle are preferred. He is a dominant character. Mostly, anomalies are found in the province and in the last blooming flowers and these mostly do not bear fruit.
Tomato fruits are botanically a true fruit and belong to the grape-like fruit class. A tomato fruit consists of the following parts.
1. Fruit flesh (Epidermis (Fruit skin) + pericarp walls)
2.Pulp (placental parenchyma + seeds)
3.Seeds (in the placenta)
Tomato seeds are small, 3-4 mm in diameter and kidney-shaped, round and flat. Seeds are white to gray-yellow with intense white hairs. The hairiness feature distinguishes tomato seeds from other Solanaceae family species. There are 300-350 seeds in 1 gr tomato seed. 1000 seed weight varies between 2.7-3.3 gr. When pollination and fertilization occurs under normal conditions, 20-400 seeds can be obtained from a fruit.