The cultivars in which the seeds obtained from the hybridization of two or more homogeneous materials are used in production are called F1 hybrid cultivars, and breeding studies for the development of such cultivars are called F1 hybrid cultivar breeding or F1 hybrid vigor breeding.
Among the horticultural crops, the most commonly used F1 hybrid varieties are vegetables. As a result of various researches, many F1 hybrid varieties have been developed and put into production in tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, zucchini, melon, watermelon, onion, carrot, cabbage and cauliflower.
The advantage of using f1 hybrid seeds
Despite the fact that seed production is more difficult and costly than standard varieties, the reason for the rapid development of F1 hybrid varieties is some superiority of these varieties over standard varieties. These obvious advantages are:
1. F1 hybrid cultivars are generally more productive than standard cultivars. This productivity is due to the phenomenon of heterosis (crossbreeding or hybrid vigor). Heterosis usually causes enlargement in vegetative organs and increase in number in generative organs.
2. Apart from productivity, earliness, resistance to diseases and pests, resistance to environmental conditions, and quality characteristics can also be heterosis.
3. F1 hybrid varieties have wider adaptability. Hybrids can give relatively good results in less favorable conditions as well as in good conditions.
4. With F1 hybrid power breeding, varieties resistant to various diseases and superior agricultural characteristics can be obtained more quickly. F1 hybrid varieties can only be produced by people or organizations who know and own their parents. For this reason, when a new F1 cultivar is developed, it is not easy to be propagated by other seed producers. Therefore, the F1 hybrids obtained after long efforts provide important advantages to the breeder organization in terms of competition. This is one of the most important reasons why private companies have preferred to work with the F1 hybrid variety in recent years.