functions of nitrogen in plants
It is vital in the life of plants. It forms an important structure of proteins, hormones, chlorophyll, vitamins and enzymes. It enables the growth and development of vegetative organs.Plants take nitrogen in two forms. These are in the form of Nitrate nitrogen (NO3-) and Ammonium nitrogen (NH4 +). The roots of plants take both these nitrogen forms. Most plants prefer the nitrate nitrogen form to ammonium nitrogen. However, the tendency of nitrate nitrogen to disappear in the soil is high. Most plants cannot use ammonium nitrogen readily. Before the ammonium nitrogen is absorbed, it is converted into nitrate nitrogen by the bacteria through a process called nitrification. The heat of the soil is effective in the conversion of ammonium nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen. This conversion process is faster in environments above 10 ° C of soil temperature. Nitrification is most effective when the soil pH is between 5.5-6.5. Nitrification can be completed in 2-4 weeks.
nitrogen deficiency in plants
Nitrogen deficiency decreases the yield, and the vegetative development process in the tree is shortened. It causes yellowing of leaves and stunted growth. It shows a reduced crown growth with unhealthy and thin shoots ranging from pale green to yellow. Usually, these symptoms are evident in the old leaves at the base of the shoots. As the nitrogen deficiency gets worse, yellowing called chlorosis is seen starting from the old leaves. In stone core fruits, leaves with nitrogen deficiency show a reddish and pellet hole effect as the problem gets more severe. Fruits, especially stone fruits, tend to be smaller and ripen earlier. Trees age early.
In apple trees, leaves are small and thin in nitrogen deficiency. They range in color from light green to yellow, light orange to red and purple, and shed early. Leaf stalks are thin and short and form a narrow angle. In severe nitrogen deficiencies, leaf stalks dry and fruits become colored before ripening.
Delays flowering and fruit yield in fruit trees. There is excessive shoot growth and accompanying dark green leaves.A delayed leaf fall is seen in autumn.As the nitrogen amount rises above the optimum level, the fruit color decreases and ripening is delayed.Red varieties tend to be less red yellow varieties green. Taste and storage life decrease in apples and pears. In addition, because the excess nitrogen in apples and pears prevents calcium intake, it causes fungalization and bitter spot disease that causes great damage to producers. It can also cause other physiological problems.